Sanketh Kichena Plessy v. Ferguson The period of the civil rights movement began as a result of the segregation whites and blacks in the United States after the civil war. After the Civil War, the southern portion of the country was in ruins and the period of reconstruction was underway. Although all slaves were technically freed, the racist sentiment in the south was still very strong and they found ways to manipulate and torture the blacks. One of these ways was through segregation and the excuse of “separate but equal” in society. This issue finally arose on the national scene in the Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, where the state of Louisiana had a segregation law in place. Although Louisiana already had a segregation law, the Supreme Court upheld it on a national level based on the theory that “separate but equal” could exist. The landmark case before the Civil War began, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), clearly stated that blacks were not to have any rights that whites were to respect and were essentially property rather than human beings. This decision really summed up the perception of equal rights in south as it was not all accepted and ardently fought against. Following the Civil War, the southern states enacted Jim Crow laws, which required the segregation of blacks and whites in almost every facet of public life. These circumstances would lead to another landmark case that would greatly affect the United States thereafter. The state of Louisiana passed the “Separate Car Act” in 1890 which required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. A group of concerned New Orleans residents, black and white, formed the Comité des Citoyens (Committee of Citizens) and dedicated themselves to getting the law repealed. Eventually, they persuaded Homer Plessy, an octoroon, to be a test subject. Although he was born a free man and only one-eighth black, he was still considered black under Louisiana law and was required to sit in the “colored” car. On June 7, 1892, Plessy boarded a “whites only” car of the East Louisiana Railroad in New Orleans headed to Covington, Louisiana. The railroad company, who had already been informed of Plessy’s racial background, hired an investigator with the authority to
Six decades before Rosa Parks boarded her fateful bus, another traveler in the Deep South tried to strike a blow against racial discrimination—but ultimately fell short of that goal, leading to the Supreme Court's landmark 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. Now Williamjames Hull Hoffer vividly details the origins, litigation, opinions, and aftermath of this notorious case.
In response to the passage of the Louisiana Separate Car Act of 1890, which prescribed "equal but separate accommodations" on public transportation, a group called the Committee of Citizens decided to challenge its constitutionality. At a pre-selected time and place, Homer Plessy, on behalf of the committee, boarded a train car set aside for whites, announced his non-white racial identity, and was immediately arrested. The legal deliberations that followed eventually led to the Court's 7-1 decision in Plessy, which upheld both the Louisiana statute and the state's police powers. It also helped create a Jim Crow system that would last deep into the twentieth century, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and other cases helped overturn it.
“Hoffer has produced an accessible and informative book that will enable instructors and students to more completely understand the factors leading up to Plessy V. Ferguson, the social and political zeitgeist of the time, and the enduring legacy of the case.”
—Law and Politics Book Review
“Hoffer has written an accessible history of the case, its origins, and aftermath. [Q]uite readable . . . [Hoffer’s] attention to details of place and character enliven the work and create rich context for the fateful decision of the case and the aftermath of that decision. Recommended for academic audiences and general readers with a strong interest in American legal history.”
—Library JournalSee all reviews...
“With a keen eye for personalities and telling details, Hoffer forcefully situates Plessy v. Ferguson and its doctrine of ‘equal, but separate’ within the long and troubling history of America’s struggle with race down to the present day.”
—Charles A. Lofgren, author of The Plessy Case: A Legal-Historical Interpretation
“Hoffer provides a much-needed synthesis of recent scholarship, while adding his own useful (and sometimes provocative) insights and interpretations.”
—Michael A. Ross, author of Justice Shattered Dreams: Samuel Freeman Miller and the Supreme Court during the Civil War Era
“Hoffer’s treatment of the case’s primary antagonists, its New Orleans setting, and its reception into U.S. law is exemplary.”
—Mark V. Tushnet, author of Why the Constitution MattersSee fewer reviews...
Hoffer's readable study synthesizes past work on this landmark case, while also shedding new light on its proceedings and often-neglected historical contexts. From the streets of New Orleans' Faubourg Trem district to the justices' chambers at the Supreme Court, he breathes new life into the opposing forces, dissecting their arguments to clarify one of the most important, controversial, and socially revealing cases in American law. He particularly focuses on Justice Henry Billings Brown's ruling that the statute's "equal, but separate" condition was a sufficient constitutional standard for equality, and on Justice John Marshall Harlan's classic dissent, in which he stated, "Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among its citizens."
Hoffer's compelling reconstruction illuminates the controversies and impact of Plessy v. Ferguson for a new generation of students and other interested readers. It also pays tribute to a group of little known heroes from the Deep South who failed to hold back the tide of racial segregation but nevertheless laid the groundwork for a less divided America.
About the Author
Williamjames Hull Hoffer is an associate professor of history at Seton Hall University; author of The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War and To Enlarge the Machinery of Government: Congressional Debates and the Growth of the American State, 1858-1891; and coauthor of The Supreme Court: An Essential History.