Intercultural communication is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted.
With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills.
Identity and culture are also studied within the discipline of communication to analyze how globalization influences ways of thinking, beliefs, values, and identity, within and between cultural environments. Intercultural communication scholars approach theory with a dynamic outlook and do not believe culture can be measured nor that cultures share universal attributes. Scholars acknowledge that culture and communication shift along with societal changes and theories should consider the constant shifting and nuances of society.
The study of intercultural communication requires intercultural understanding, which is defined as an ability to understand and value cultural differences. Language is and example of an important cultural component that is linked to intercultural understanding.
Areas of Interest
Cross-cultural business communication
Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication management and facilitation, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business.
Important points to consider:
- Develop cultural sensitivity
- Anticipate the meaning the receiver will get.
- Careful encoding
- Use words, pictures, and gestures.
- Avoid slang, idioms, regional sayings.
- Selective transmission
- Build relationships, face-to-face if possible.
- Careful decoding of feedback
- Get feedback from multiple parties.
- Improve listening and observation skills.
- Follow-up actions
There is a connection between a person's personality traits and the ability to adapt to the host-country's environment—including the ability to communicate within that environment.
Two key personality traits are openness and resilience. Openness includes traits such as tolerance for ambiguity, extrovertedness, and open-mindedness. Resilience includes having an internal locus of control, persistence, tolerance for ambiguity, and resourcefulness.
These factors, combined with the person's cultural and racial identity and level of preparedness for change, comprise that person's potential for adaptation.
There are common conceptualizations of attributes that define collectivistic and individualistic cultures. Operationalizing the perceptions of cultural identities works under the guise that cultures are static and homogeneous, when in fact cultures within nations are multi-ethnic and individuals show high variation in how cultural differences are internalized and expressed.
Globalization plays a central role in theorizing for mass communication, media, and cultural communication studies. Intercultural communication scholars emphasize that globalization emerged from the increasing diversity of cultures throughout the world and thrives with the removal of cultural barriers. The notion of nationality, or the construction of national space, is understood to emerge dialectically through communication and globalization.
The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended.
Nonverbal communication has been shown to account for between 65% and 93% of interpreted communication. Minor variations in body language, speech rhythms, and punctuality often cause mistrust and misperception of the situation among cross-cultural parties. This is where nonverbal communication can cause problems with intercultural communication. Misunderstandings with nonverbal communication can lead to miscommunication and insults with cultural differences. For example, a handshake in one culture may be recognized as appropriate, whereas another culture may recognize it as rude or inappropriate.
Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others.
The following types of theories can be distinguished in different strands: focus on effective outcomes, on accommodation or adaption, on identity negotiation and management, on communication networks, on acculturation and adjustment.
Social engineering effective outcomes
- Cultural convergence
- In a relatively closed social system in which communication among members is unrestricted, the system as a whole will tend to converge over time toward a state of greater cultural uniformity. The system will tend to diverge toward diversity when communication is restricted.
- Communication accommodation theory
- This theory focuses on linguistic strategies to decrease or increase communicative distances.
- Intercultural adaption
- Intercultural adaptation involves learned communicative competence. Communicative competence is defined as thinking, feeling, and pragmatically behaving in ways defined as appropriate by the dominant mainstream culture. Communication competence is an outcomes based measure conceptualized as functional/operational conformity to environmental criteria such as working conditions. Beyond this, adaptation means "the need to conform" to mainstream "objective reality" and "accepted modes of experience".
- Co-cultural theory
- In its most general form, co-cultural communication refers to interactions among underrepresented and dominant group members. Co-cultures include but are not limited to people of color, women, people with disabilities, gay men and lesbians, and those in the lower social classes. Co-cultural theory, as developed by Mark P. Orbe, looks at the strategic ways in which co-cultural group members communicate with others. In addition, a co-cultural framework provides an explanation for how different persons communicate based on six factors.
Identity negotiation or management
- Networks and outgroup communication competence
- Intracultural versus intercultural networks
- Networks and acculturation
Acculturation and adjustment
- Communication acculturation
- This theory attempts to portray "cross-cultural adaptation as a collaborative effort in which a stranger and the receiving environment are engaged in a joint effort."
- Anxiety/Uncertainty management
- When strangers communicate with hosts, they experience uncertainty and anxiety. Strangers need to manage their uncertainty as well as their anxiety in order to be able to communicate effectively with hosts and then to try to develop accurate predictions and explanations for hosts' behaviors.
- Assimilation, deviance, and alienation states
- Assimilation and adaption are not permanent outcomes of the adaption process; rather, they are temporary outcomes of the communication process between hosts and immigrants. "Alienation or assimilation, therefore, of a group or an individual, is an outcome of the relationship between deviant behavior and neglectful communication."
- Meaning of meanings theory – "A misunderstanding takes place when people assume a word has a direct connection with its referent. A common past reduces misunderstanding. Definition, metaphor, feedforward, and Basic English are partial linguistic remedies for a lack of shared experience."
- Face negotiation theory – "Members of collectivistic, high-context cultures have concerns for mutual face and inclusion that lead them to manage conflict with another person by avoiding, obliging, or compromising. Because of concerns for self-face and autonomy, people from individualistic, low-context cultures manage conflict by dominating or through problem solving"
- Standpoint theory – An individual's experiences, knowledge, and communication behaviors are shaped in large part by the social groups to which they belong. Individuals sometimes view things similarly, but other times have very different views in which they see the world. The ways in which they view the world are shaped by the experiences they have and through the social group they identify themselves to be a part of. "Feminist standpoint theory claims that the social groups to which we belong shape what we know and how we communicate. The theory is derived from the Marxist position that economically oppressed classes can access knowledge unavailable to the socially privileged and can generate distinctive accounts, particularly knowledge about social relations."
- Stranger theory – At least one of the persons in an intercultural encounter is a stranger. Strangers are a 'hyperaware' of cultural differences and tend to overestimate the effect of cultural identity on the behavior of people in an alien society, while blurring individual distinctions.
- Feminist genre theory – Evaluates communication by identifying feminist speakers and reframing their speaking qualities as models for women's liberation.
- Genderlect theory – "Male-female conversation is cross-cultural communication. Masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects rather than as inferior or superior ways of speaking. Men's report talk focuses on status and independence. Women's support talk seeks human connection."
- Cultural critical studies theory – The theory states that the mass media impose the dominant ideology on the rest of society, and the connotations of words and images are fragments of ideology that perform an unwitting service for the ruling elite.
- Marxism – aims to explain class struggle and the basis of social relations through economics.
Intercultural communication is competent when it accomplishes the objectives in a manner that is appropriate to the context and relationship. Intercultural communication thus needs to bridge the dichotomy between appropriateness and effectiveness: Proper means of intercultural communication leads to a 15% decrease in miscommunication.
- Appropriateness: Valued rules, norms, and expectations of the relationship are not violated significantly.
- Effectiveness: Valued goals or rewards (relative to costs and alternatives) are accomplished.
Competent communication is an interaction that is seen as effective in achieving certain rewarding objectives in a way that is also related to the context in which the situation occurs. In other words, it is a conversation with an achievable goal that is used at an appropriate time/location.
Intercultural communication can be linked with identity, which means the competent communicator is the person who can affirm others' avowed identities. As well as goal attainment is also a focus within intercultural competence and it involves the communicator to convey a sense of communication appropriateness and effectiveness in diverse cultural contexts.
Ethnocentrism plays a role in intercultural communication. The capacity to avoid ethnocentrism is the foundation of intercultural communication competence. Ethnocentrism is the inclination to view one's own group as natural and correct, and all others as aberrant.
People must be aware that to engage and fix intercultural communication there is no easy solution and there is not only one way to do so. Listed below are some of the components of intercultural competence.
- Context: A judgment that a person is competent is made in both a relational and situational context.This means that competence is not defined as a single attribute, meaning someone could be very strong in one section and only moderately good in another. Situationally speaking competence can be defined differently for different cultures. For example, eye contact shows competence in western cultures whereas, Asian cultures find too much eye contact disrespectful.
- Appropriateness: This means that your behaviours are acceptable and proper for the expectations of any given culture.
- Effectiveness: The behaviours that lead to the desired outcome being achieved.
- Knowledge: This has to do with the vast information you have to have on the person's culture that you are interacting with. This is important so you can interpret meanings and understand culture-general and culture-specific knowledge.
- Motivations:This has to do with emotional associations as they communicate interculturally. Feelings which are your reactions to thoughts and experiences have to do with motivation. Intentions are thoughts that guide your choices, it is a goal or plan that directs your behaviour. These two things play a part in motivation.
Basic tools for improvement
The following are ways to improve communication competence:
- Display of interest: showing respect and positive regard for the other person.
- Orientation to knowledge: Terms people use to explain themselves and their perception of the world.
- Empathy: Behaving in ways that shows you understand the world as others do.
- interaction management: A skill in which you regulate conversations.
- Task role behaviour: initiate ideas that encourage problem solving activities.
- Relational role behaviour: interpersonal harmony and mediation.
- Tolerance for ambiguity: The ability to react to new situations with little discomfort.
- Interaction posture: Responding to others in descriptive, non-judgmental ways.
- Proficiency in the host culture language: understanding the grammar and vocabulary.
- Understanding language pragmatics: how to use politeness strategies in making requests and how to avoid giving out too much information.
- Being sensitive and aware to nonverbal communication patterns in other cultures.
- Being aware of gestures that may be offensive or mean something different in a host culture rather than your own home culture.
- Understanding a culture's proximity in physical space and paralinguistic sounds to convey their intended meaning.
- Tolerating high levels of uncertainty.
- Engaging in divergent and systems-level thinking.
Verbal communication consist of messages being sent and received continuously with the speaker and the listener, it is focused on the way messages are portrayed. Verbal communication is based on language and use of expression, the tone in which the sender of the message relays the communication can determine how the message is received and in what context.
Factors that affect verbal communication:
- Tone of voice
- Use of descriptive words
- Emphasis on certain phrases
- Volume of voice
The way a message is received is dependent on these factors as they give a greater interpretation for the receiver as to what is meant by the message. By emphasizing a certain phrase with the tone of voice, this indicates that it is important and should be focused more on.
Along with these attributes, verbal communication is also accompanied with non-verbal cues. These cues make the message clearer and give the listener an indication of what way the information should be received.
Example of non-verbal cues
- Facial expressions
- Hand gestures
- Use of objects
- Body movement
In terms of intercultural communication there are language barriers which are effected by verbal forms of communication. In this instance there is opportunity for miscommunication between two or more parties. Other barriers that contribute to miscommunication would be the type of words chosen in conversation. Due to different cultures there are different meaning in vocabulary chosen, this allows for a message between the sender and receiver to be misconstrued.
Nonverbal communication is behavior that communicates without words—though it often may be accompanied by words. Minor variations in body language, speech rhythms, and punctuality often cause differing interpretations of the situation among cross-cultural parties.
Kinesic behavior is communication through body movement—e.g., posture, gestures, facial expressions and eye contact. The meaning of such behavior varies across countries.
Occulesics are a form of kinesics that includes eye contact and the use of the eyes to convey messages.
Proxemics concern the influence of proximity and space on communication (e.g., in terms of personal space and in terms of office layout). For example, space communicates power in the US and Germany.
Paralanguage refers to how something is said, rather than the content of what is said—e.g., rate of speech, tone and inflection of voice, other noises, laughing, yawning, and silence.
Object language or material culture refers to how we communicate through material artifacts—e.g., architecture, office design and furniture, clothing, cars, cosmetics, and time. In monochronic cultures, time is experienced linearly and as something to be spent, saved, made up, or wasted. Time orders life, and people tend to concentrate on one thing at a time. In polychronic cultures, people tolerate many things happening simultaneously and emphasize involvement with people. In these cultures, people may be highly distractible, focus on several things at once, and change plans often.
Clothing and the way people dress is used as a form of nonverbal communication.
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2 Communication and its need for societies
2.1 Intercultural communication
2.2 Nonverbal communication
2.2.1 Facial expressions
2.2.3 Culture and non-verbal communication
2.3 Misunderstandings and rejections
3 Conflicts as means for transformation
3.1 Intercultural Conflict
Our world today is characterized by a growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different languages and cultural background. The contact with persons from other cultures is often frustrating and full of misunderstanding. Good intentions and a friendly approach don’t seem to be sufficient. Respect for other cultures is one of the key needs in communication. No one should look down on those with different customs, languages or cultures, but try to look through their eyes and to understand, what and how they are seeing the world. Communication between cultures takes place because of contacts within the areas of tourism, education, science, entertainment, but also business, politics or immigration. In all these cross-cultural contacts, communication needs to be constructive without any misunderstandings, just because the group to which a person belongs is different. Currently new types of relationships are presenting communication challenges that few people are ready to meet.
In this paper I intend to deal with the concept of communication, especially non-verbal communication and its features in communicating a message when it happens between different cultures.
Communication is the verbal or written exchange of ideas or information between two or more people. In general there is usually one speaker, a message being transmitted and a person receiving this message. Three different types of communications are known: verbal, non-verbal or visual.
The verbal communication is a form of conversation between two or more entities to convey a message. Non-verbal communication is a process of sending and receiving wordless messages through gestures, facial expressions and body language, eye-contact or even clothing, hairstyles, architecture or symbols. Visual communication is the transmission of ideas and information in forms that can be read upon.
Communication may happen between people of one and the same culture or language, and of different cultures. Most problems occur between people of different cultural backgrounds.
2 Communication and its need for societies
Since ages communication has always been an important form of understanding other cultures. Already in ancient times people found out that some form of persuasive talks were better to solve conflicts than war and that some people were more skilled than others in these forms of talk. Some even began to study the differences between good and bad arguments and the art of persuasion become an important thread throughout the history of Western Culture. Coordinated Management of Meaning is a valuable source for understanding and developing better communication forms called for by the challenges of our society. To improve our social words is like a mystery to explore. People should learn to treat their stories as well as others as unfinished and incomplete. The own story should be treated as ‘local’, dependent on the own history and perspectives. Different stories should be treated as valid within the framework of the other person’s history and perspectives and purposes. People should always be curious about other person’s stories.
2.1 Intercultural communication
Intercultural communication occurs, whenever a person from one culture sends a message to be processed by a person from a different culture.
The subject of intercultural communication is beset by a mayor problem, because the linguistic term culture often brings up a lot of problems. First it means a large group of people and what they have in common, e.g. their history, language, or geographical location. Naming the Japanese, the Chinese, Americans, the British and so on, they have a common meaning about what members of these groups have in common and what differences occur among its members.
Talking about such large groups it’s necessary to avoid the problem of overgeneralization by using the word culture, where it doesn’t apply, especially in the discourse of intercultural communication. Discourse means communication between individuals. Culture, however, is a subordinated category. It is the rules for living and functioning in a society. Cultures do not talk to each others as individuals do. American culture cannot talk to French culture except through the discourse of individuals with either American or French background. This field of study looks at how people from different cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves and across cultures.
Culture itself is a set of beliefs, ideas, customs, general behavior, festivals, cuisine, attitudes and even clothes style that differ from country to country. People living in the same country have similarities in their culture, but one can also see differences, especially in geographical areas within a country. Cultures change over a period of time, but people travelling from one cultural area to the next don’t change their cultures. Therefore cross-cultural communication requires caution.
Culture is not a fixed identity, but a discursive space that is always on the move. Thus relations between cultures are a complex interaction of entities which are in a permanent process of negotiating their own identity. Culture is also a human creation, “a system of symbols by which man confers significance upon his own experience”. This provides one’s identity and reading of the world. So cultures are perceived as expressions of differences. Culture engenders a sense of belonging, of identity and inclusion and therefore implies borders and exclusion. These borders are not as clear cut as national borders, but they are at the center of cultural relations. It is the meeting at these borders that defines the relationship between cultures. These limited spaces are discursive, offering space for discussions, negotiations, debates, and compromises.
) See. Barna, Laray, M.: Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication, in: Samovar, L. A./Porter, R. E.:Intercultural Communication: A Reader, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, 1994, pp. 337-346, p. 337.
) See. http://accurapid.com/Journal/50culture.htm.
) See. http://accurapid.com/Journal/50culture.htm.
) Pearce, B. W.: The coordinated Management of Meaning, in: Gudykunst, W. B. (ed.): Theorizing about intercultural communication, a.a.o., pp. 35-55, p. 35.
) See. Pearce, a.a.o., p. 50.
) Cit. McDaniel, E./Samovar, L./Porter, R.: Understanding Cultural Communication: The Working Principles, in: McDaniel, E./Samovar, L./Porter, R.(Eds.): Intercultural Communication: A Reader, Wadsworth, Boston, 2009, pp. 6-17, p. 7.
) See. Scollon, Ronald/Scollon Suzanne: Intercultural communication: a discourse approach, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 2001, p. 138.
) See. McDaniel, E., a.a.o., p. 10.
) See. Scollon, a.a.o., p. 38.
) See. Clifford, James: ‘On Orientalism’ in: The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature and Art, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 255-276, p. 273.
) See. Watson, Ian: Negotiating cultures: Eugenio Barba and the intercultural debate, Manchester University Press, New York, 2002, p. 3.
) Cit. Watson, a.a.o., p. 3.
) See. Watson, a.a.o., p. 3.